History of the International Plant Protection Congresses (IPPCs)
The history of the International Plant Protection Congresses (IPPCs) was prepared from records that I received from Professor Lawrence Apple, the 1st IAPPS Secretary General, when I assumed the IAPPS Secretary General position in 2004.
The summary of IPPC s Number 1-13 (I to XIII) is from a document prepared by J.C. Zadoks, Organizer of the XIII IPPC, Netherlands 1995, which was in the files provided me by Lawrence in 2004.
The XIV, 1999 Israel report is based on file records and trip reports by Emirian Jones, Horticulture Research International, Welles Bourne and Mike Cooke, University College Dublin found through an internet search.
The XV, 2004,China report is taken from a report by the Chair of the Organizing committee, Professor CHENG Zhou-min, President of the hosting organization, the China Society of Plant Protection (CSPP) an IAPPS Governing board and from a detailed report by Ai-Ping Liang, Department of Entomology, Institute of Zoology, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Plant Protection towards the 21st Century:
Report of the Fifteenth International Plant Protection Congress which was published in the Journal of the Kansas Entomological Society, Vol. 78, No. 4, Oct., 2005, p. 297-300, url: http://www.jstor.org/stable/25086281.
I have prepared the reports for the XVI IPPC Glasgow 2004 and XVII IPPC, USA 2011 as based on my records and observations.
E.A. “Short” Heinrichs
IAPPS Secretary General
Lincoln, NE USA
May 9, 2012
History of IPPCs I to XIII as reported by J.C. Zadoks
The first IPPC was held in Louvain, Belgium in 1946 and subsequent congresses have been scheduled at 4-year intervals. Congresses through 1975 focused principally on new means of controlling insects with some discussion relating to the chemical control of diseases. The majority of the participants were entomologists. The Congress held in Washington, DC in 1979 was the first organized by a multidisciplinary group consisting of plant pathologists, entomologists, weed scientists, nematologists and chemists, and the integration of these disciplines was reflected in the program. Since that time the IPPC programs have been broadly multidisciplinary with emphasis on integrated pest management (IPM). For 50+ years the IPPCs have provided a forum for plant protection scientists to communicate and discuss important problems and new discoveries related to crop losses due to pests and their management. Registered participants at the IPPC’s have ranged from about 400 in the early congresses to a high of 2,160 at the 9th Congress in Washington, DC in 1979 which was co-sponsored with the American Phytopathological Society.
Just after World War II the time was ripe to establish and International Congress of Plant Protection. As Dr. Thor Kommendal wrote: “A bright new star, a nova, named DDT had just burst brilliantly in the plant protection heavens. It was accompanied by some bright satellites; the dithiocarbamates for plant disease control, 2,4-D for weed control and DD for nematodes. Crop plants had never been so free of pests since agriculture was established. In the leaf hopper areas of America, potatoes had never been green in September. The yields were doubled, often quadrupled.
IPPC works under the umbrella of the ICSU (International Council of Scientific Unions) though IPPC as an organization is not a union and has no legal status. Thumbing through the volumes of abstracts and proceedings generated by the IPPC, one cannot escape to be impressed by the immense effort of scientists and administrators, of private and public organization, to improve crop protection and to adjust crop protection to the ever changing feelings of the general public with respect to feed security, welfare and environment.
Organizer XIII IPPC
4th- IV IPPC
The 4th IPPC convened in Hamburg, Germany, under the presidency of Professor H. Richter. The emphasis of the 1957 congress changed slightly with plant breeding and other approaches to plant protection being addressed. A key- note address was delivered by Dr. George Harrar, then leader of the group that would trigger the Green Revolution only a decade later. The 4th IPPC had 751 attendants.
The 6th IPPC was held in Vienna, Austria, 30 August-6 September, 1967 under the auspices of the Arbeitsgemeinschaft für Pflanzenschutz with Professor F. Beran as chair. A Standing committee was established to ensure continuity, and Dr. G. Mathys of the European Plant Protection Organization in Paris was elected the first secretary. Attendance was 1,260. A book of abstracts of 704 pages was published.
6th- VI IPPC
The 6th IPPC was held in Vienna, Austria, 30 August-6 September, 1967 under the auspices of the Arbeitsgemeinschaft für Pflanzenschutz with Professor F. Beran as chair. A Standing committee was established to ensure continuity, and Dr. G. Mathys of the European Plant Protection Organization in Paris was elected the first secretary. Attendance was 1,260. A book of abstracts of 704 pages was published.
7th- VII IPPC
The 7th IPPC met in Paris, France, 21-25 September 1970, under the presidency of Dr. Jean Bustarret with Dr. M. Colas as chairman of the organizing committee.
The Medal of the VII International Congress of Plant Protection was presented to John E. Casida
8th- VIII IPPC
The 8th IPPC was convened in Moscow, USSR in 1975. Dr. Ivan A. Churayev served as the president and A. A. Goltsov as chair of the Organizing Committee. Attendance was 1,687. The Medal of the VIII International Congress of Plant Protection was presented to Ray Smith.
9th- IX IPPC
IPPC no. 9 was held in Washington, DC in 1979 under the presidency of Dr. J.G. Horsfall, coinciding with the Annual Meeting of the American Phytopathological Society. Dr. Bill Tweedy chaired the Organizing Committee. This was the first IPPC to deal with plant protection in the broadest sense and attracted a multidisciplinary group of 2,160 participants, apparently one of the largest IPPCs on record. The organizers selected the theme, “Protecting the world’s food supply.” A Policy Committee explicitly chose to integrate the activities of the plant protection sciences to promote the basic aspects of plant protection and to integrate pest management programs commodity-wise. The Committee gave due attention to the economic and social aspects of plant protection, thus extending the scope of the IPPC. The congress was financially so successful that the Proceedings, skilfully edited by Thor Kommedahl, could be published in two volumes consisting of 630 pages. One of the resolutions accepted at the Closing Session was that the IPPC should devote more attention to plant protection activities in developing countries. The award, Adventurers in Agricultural Science Award of Distinction (Signed by US Secretary of Agriculture, Earl Butz) was presented to:
Perry L. Adkisson, USA
Lucas Brader, FAO/Netherlands
A. Churayev, USSR
Ellis B. Cowling, USA
William B. Ennis, USA
Fritz Grossmann, D
Leroy Holm, USA
Jim Horsfall, USA
Carl Huffaker, USA
W. Clive James, CDN
Philip C. Kearny, USA
Arthur Kelman, USA
Franco Lamberti, Italy
William F. Mai, USA
Fus Mathys, Switzerland
Joseph N. Sasser, USA
Ray F. Smith, USA
Bill G. Tweedy, USA
Doug F. Waterhouse, Australia
Michael J. Way, United Kingdom
Jan C.Zadoks, Netherlands
10th- X IPPC
Brighton (United Kingdom) hosted the10th IPPC 2025 November, 1983, with Professor Leonard Broadbent as president. Dr. E. Lester chaired the Organizing committee. Inching away from the old focus of chemical plant protection, “Plant protection for human welfare” was the congress theme. The Proceedings were published in three volumes with a total of 1,228 pages. If the estimate by Graham Matthews of >2,300 registrants is correct this is the largest IPPC on record. The award, “Adventurers in Agricultural Science Award of Distinction” was presented to Johan Dekker (Netherlands), John D. Fryer, James G.Horsfall (USA), Thomas R. Odhiambo (Kenya), Ray F. Smith (USA) and D. F. Waterhouse (Australia)
11th- XI IPPC
Responding to the resolution of the 9th congress the lead theme for the congress was “Focus on the developing world.” The 11th IPPC was convened in Manila, Philippines, 5-9 October, 1987 with Professor Ed Magallona as the organizer. Pres. was Dr. José R. Velasco. Jan C. Zadoks made a plenary session presentation on “Epidemiology and Plant Disease Management in the Tropics.” Attendance was affected by the security situation of the moment. At least two action groups organized a colorful and friendly picket line in front of the Manila the Hotel, site of the congress. In addition, California experienced an earthquake during congress which caused concern among the participants. Besides the various technical aspects of plant protection, international affairs and organizational aspects of plant protection were discussed. Undesirable side effects of chemical plant protection were brought forward. Magallona edited two heavy volumes of the proceedings; “Management of Pests and Pesticides” 581 + 363 pages, a highly commendable achievement. The award, “Adventurers in Agricultural Science Award of Distinction” was presented to:
Alexj B. Borkovac, USA,
Ronald A. Coffee,
Raymond A. Grogan, USA
Hidetsugu Ishikura, Japan
Joseph A. Kuc, USA
Donald H. Marx, USA
Beatriz L. Mercado, Philippines
Keith Moody, Philippines
George R. Rohwer
Fernando R. Sanchez, Philippines
12th – XII PPC
The 12th IPPC, Rio de Janeiro, 1991, was organized by Mr. Christiano Walter Simon and Mr. Omuz Freitas Rivaldo served as president. Of the 1,354 registrants from 68 countries, 819 were Brazilian and 535 foreign. Of the foreign participants 120 were from the USA , Japan (42), Argentina (35), The United Kingdom (32) and Chile (19) and Belgium , Colombia, Germany and Uruguay (15 each country). As the date conflicted with the annual APS meeting, attendance of U.S. participants was lower than expected. The congress theme was “Integrated management for crop protection.” The opening address, “The Costs of Change” was presented by Jan C. Zadoks. The program consisted of 5 plenary lectures, 35 symposia, 2 workshops, 182 oral paper sessions and 200 posters. The Standing Committee accepted the logo designed for the 12th IPPC, as the future IPPC logo. Awards for “Outstanding Service to Crop Protection” were conferred upon Keith Brent (United Kingdom), Alvaro Santos Costa (Brazil), Dr. Joseph W. Eckert (USA), Hans Herren (Switzerland) Tetsuo Saito ( Japan) and Cristiano Walter Simon (Brazil).
13th – XIII IPPC
Opening Presentation by J. Dekker, Chair of the Standing Committee
Published in the European Journal of Plant Pathology, 1995. Provided courtesy of Izuru Yamamoto
The start of a series of international plant protection congresses took place in 1946 at Leuven (Louvain), Belgium. Food shortage during the just finished war had stressed the need for increase of agricultural production. At that time, an increasing stream of new organic compounds became available, which were very effective in reducing crop losses caused by disease and pest organisms. This asked for more international exchange of research data and experience in crop protection.
It is therefore not surprising that at these congresses the emphasis in this early period was on pesticides and that much support was received from the rapidly growing agrochemical industry. In a sense these congresses were unique: they were the only international plant protection congresses which covered all specialisms in this field. As they, increasingly, appeared to fill a need, it was felt appropriate to ensure their continuity. Thus an international Standing Committee was established at the 6th Congress in Vienna, 1967.
Gradually, however, it appeared that the miraculous chemicals also had their shortcomings. Continuous use led in several cases to development of resistance in the noxious organisms to be controlled. This made it desirable to reduce their application where possible, and to make better use of non-chemical, cultural and biological methods. These developments are reflected in the lead themes of the succeeding congresses: Protecting the world’s food supply (Washington, 1979), Plant protection for human welfare (Brighton, 1983), Integrated Pest Management (Rio de Janeiro, 1991) and Sustainable crop protection for the benefit of all (The Hague, 1995). The first congress to be held in the tropics was in 1987 in Manila, with the theme: International Plant Protection: focus on the developing world.
There is another aspect to be mentioned with respect to these broad international congresses. In the course of time a shift occurred towards more fundamental research in plant protection, either at the molecular or the ecological level. Many researchers feel they benefit more from symposia and small congresses geared to their special field of interest. This, together with tighter funds for international meetings, tends towards a decrease of the attendance of large congresses covering a very broad field. Some even raise the question, whether broad mass congresses still have a future. Nevertheless I think the answer will remain, yes. They contribute to the awareness of the individual that his/her own specialized research only functions well as part in the total frame¬ work of plant protection, aimed at rendering services to agriculture and society. Further, the opportunity to meet the leaders in the various plant protection disciplines, and the possibility for interaction with colleagues in other specialisms may stimulate to find new ways in individual research projects.
I expect that the 13th IPPC will function in this way. The Organizing Committee, under the chairmanship of Dr. Zadoks, has paved the way. I hope your participation in this congress will be rewarding and enjoyable.
Report by Jan C. Zadoks, Chair of the 13th IPPC Organizing Committee
Preparations for the 13th IPPC, to be convened from 2-7 July, 1995 at The Hague, Netherlands, started with a handicap. Public action against the use of chemical plant protection had reduced sales and caused manufacturers to reorganize. Whereas old stars lost some of their brilliance, new stars rose to the plant protection skies, such as biological control, integrated control and pest and disease management, preferably by computer. The course of the stars was altered by the newcomers such as international organizations and environmental institutions. These seemingly adverse effects were accepted as a challenge to plant protection, a challenge to which science, industry and administration should give an appropriate reply.
The theme “Sustainable crop protection for the benefit of all” gave ample scope to match agricultural and environmental issues. Crop protection had become more integrated, more complex and spread over new areas of the globe which were hardly covered by science –driven plant protection. Consequently, new topics were introduced such as ‘indigenous knowledge systems,’ ‘gender issues in crop protection,’ ‘extension’ and ‘scenario studies.’
A book of abstracts was produced. Proceedings of several sessions were slated for publication such as the “Industry, and policy fora,’ the symposium ‘Constraints to the use of new organisms to control pests and diseases’ and sessions such as ‘gender issues and crop protection’ and ‘Indigenous knowledge systems.’
Thirteen awards were presented: Individual awards were conferred upon Dr. Perry Lee Adkisson (USA), Dr. J. Lawrence Apple ( USA), Dr. M. A. De Waard (The Netherlands), Prof. Rudolf Heitefuss (Germany), Dr. Peter E. Kenmore (FAO, Rome), Dr. Li Li- Ying (China), Prof. Graham Matthews (United Kingdom), Dr. Flavio Moscardi (Brazil), Dr. S . Nagarajan (India) and Dr. Hugh Sisler (USA). Team awards were presented to the Division of Entomology – CSIRO, CffiA Crop Protection Division, and Koppert Biosystems B. V.
Recognizing the changed circumstances, needs, and opportunities in global plant protection, the Standing Committee (SC) of the IPPCs established the Future Directions Committee (FDC) at the 1995 congress in The Hague. The FDC at the 1995 congress discussed the goals and objectives of the IPPC and recommended organizational/ structural changes necessary to meet the communication and integration needs and challenges of the plant protection sciences for the 21st century and beyond. Among the many recommendations made was the establishment of the International Association for the Plant Protection Sciences (IAPPS).
14th – XIV IPPC
Late David Rosen/Yaakov Katan
In the early stages of the preparation of this Congress, our dear friend and colleague, Professor David Rosen, Chairperson of the 14th IPPC, passed away after a courageous struggle. The Congress will be dedicated to the memory of Professor David Rosen, researcher, educator and innovator in the field of biological control.
XIVth IPPC Program
This Congress was held at the International Conference Centre, Jerusalem 25-30 July, 1999, with more than 1500 participants from all over the world. . The Congress theme was “Plant protection towards the third millennium – where chemistry meets ecology.” The Congress was dedicated to the memory of Professor David Rosen, researcher, educator and innovator in the field of biological control. Dr. Yore Rosslea was congress president. The congress was managed by five committees: Organizing Committee (15 persons with Jacob Karan as chair); Scientific Program Committee (6 persons with Baruch Rubin as chair); International Advisory Board (24persons ); IPPC Standing Committee (25 persons including the first IAPPS Secretary General, Prof. Lawrence Apple) and the Local Sub-Committee (50 persons) consisting of seven subject areas: 1) Alternative methods of pest control, 2) IPM, 3) Biotechnology in plant protection, 4) Chemical ecology, 5) Regulatory aspects, 6) Professional field trips and 7) Financial committee.
The David Rosen memorial lecture given by Marjorie Hoy. She gave a very touching and personal lecture on the life of David Rosen and his contribution to the biological control of arthropod pests in citrus, as well as an overview of the current status of biocontrol in citrus in Florida. The program was divided into 26 symposia, 13 poster sessions (350 posters) and 28 workshops which covered all aspects of plant protection from new pesticides, biological control and natural products, cultural and physical control methods, plant breeding, diagnostics and monitoring, modeling and forecasting. There were some outstanding sessions during the Congress. One of the most popular (the issues facing the regulatory community in regards to biotechnology, genetically modified organisms and transgenic crops) attracted one of the biggest audiences yet was held in one of the smallest lecture rooms; consequently it was not possible for many to attend.
The International Plant Protection Award of Distinction (IPPAD) was conferred upon Dr. Sultan Alimakhamedov (Uzbekistan), Dr. Anthony C. Bellotti (Colombia) and Dr. Kurt R. S. Ascher (Israel).
At the XIV the IPPC Future Directions Committee (FDC) formally approved the recommendation made at the 1995 meeting in Hague. Among the many recommendations made was the establishment of the International Association for the Plant Protection Sciences (IAPPS). The purpose of IAPPS was to not only to provide an umbrella organization for the IPPCs but also to provide a forum and structure for the coordination and integration of the plant protection sciences on a global basis. Further particulars for joining IAPPS can be obtained from Dr. J. Lawrence Apple, Secretary General of IAPPS, NC State University, Raleigh, USA.
15th – XV IPPC
The 15th IPPC was held at the Beijing International Convention Center, Beijing, China, 11‐16 May, 2004. The Congress was proposed to be held in 2003 but due to the SARS epidemic (reported to have originated in Guandong Province) in Asia it was postponed until 2004. The postponement is expected to have had a negative effect on the number of foreign participants attending. However, next to the IX IPPC in Washington, DC, 1979, this was the largest IPPC with 2,061 participants, many of them Chinese (including 44 accompanying persons) from 59 countries. In addition to the Organizing committee and the Scientific Committee 30 local people were recruited to work for the Congress and 45 PhD students volunteered to serve the Congress.
The Congress was sponsored by the International Association for the Plant Protection Sciences (IAPPS) and hosted by the China Society of Plant Protection (CSPP). The Congress theme was “The first Great Gathering for Plant Protection in the 21st Century. President of the Congress was Dr. Hans Herren. The congress was managed by five committees: IAPPS Governing Board members as the International Advisory Committee (22persons including Professor Lawrence Apple, IAPPS Secretary General); Organizing Committee (38 persons with Professor ZHOU Da-rong as chair, former president of the CSPP, Co-Chair was Professor Cheng Zhou‐min, President of the CSPP); Scientific Program Committee (25 persons with Professor GUO Yu-yuan as chair); Advisory Committee (15 persons with Professor SHEN Qi-yi); Local Committee (42 persons) and the Financial committee(16 persons).
The Vice Premier Hui Liang-yu, Agricultural minister Du Qing-lin and other government leaders were invited to attend the opening ceremony and made the welcoming speeches, respectively. Professor CHENG Zhuo-min gave the welcoming address on behalf of CSPP. The Congress focused on current progress in plant protection sciences and technology and its foreseeable development in the 21st century. It addressed the hot issues of food safety, and prevention of invasive alien species while exchanging new knowledge and experience in the areas of plant protection. The 3 opening lectures, 10 plenary lectures, 87 special symposia and workshops, 3 satellite meetings, 2,412 paper presentations, 1,097 talks and more than 400 posters were presented during the Congress. The Opening Lectures were given by Dr. Hans, Herren, President of IAPPS (“Plant Health Management Issues of Tomorrow: Back to the Future”); Professor GUO Yu‐yuan, Academician, Chinese Academy of engineering China (“Advances in Plant Protection in China”) and Dr. Christian Verschuren, Director General, CropLife International (“The Plant Science Industry: Sustainable Business for Sustainable Agriculture”). There were 10 plenary lectures delivered by renowned scientists, There were 10 plenary lectures delivered by renowned scientists: 1) Development of transgenic plants and their biosafety in China by Professor HUANG Da-fang (China); 2) The operation of a GIS-based Decision Support System for Australian locust management by Dr. Graeme Hamilton (Australia); 3)Development and deployment of transgenic insecticidal crops in pest management by Professor A. M. Shelton (USA); 4) Innovation and challenge for weed science in the 21st century by Dr. Dale Shaner (USA);5 ) Post-harvest pest control in the 21st century by Professor Ken Vick (USA); 6) Use of transgenic insects in plant protection by Professor Thomas A. Miller (USA); 7 ) Signalling in disease and pest resistance: Networking in a hostile environment by Professor Chris Lamb (UK); 8) Advances in biological control of insect pests by Professor Thomas Phillips (USA); 9)The epidemiology of fungal diseases in cereals by Professor J. A. Verreet (Germany); 10) Fighting hunger and poverty: IPM contributions in Africa by Professor Anthony Youdeowei (FAO). Almost all aspects of plant protection science were covered under the following nineteen sections: 1) IPM Implementation in the 21st Century; 2) Resistance of Crops to Pests; 3)Bio‐control; 4)Chemical Pesticides, Botanicals and Their Applications;5) Biotechnology and Molecular Biology in Plant Protection; 6) Information Technology in Plant Protection and Pest Prediction; 7) Grain Crop Pest Management; 8) Cash Crop Pest Management; 9) Orchard Pest Management; 10) Forest Pest Management; 11) Vegetable Crop Pest Management; 12) Management of Locusts and Grasshoppers; 13) Flower, Gardens and Grass Pest Management; 14) Weed Management; 15) Pest Management for Pre‐planting and Post‐harvesting; 16) Plant Protection and the Environment; 17) Ecological Regulation and Control of Farmland Pests; 18) Plant Quarantine; and 19) Alternative Pest Management Techniques and Strategies.
The opening ceremony was broadcast on China Central Television Station CCTV, Beijing Television Station (BTV) and reported in the China Daily, People’s Daily, Science and Technology Daily, Farmers’ Daily and www.cctv.com, www.people.com.cn, www.sina.com.cn.
During the closing ceremony of the 15th IPPC the International Plant Protection Awards of Distinction were conferred to:
Professor Izuru Yamamoto (Japan), for being an innovative scientist, excellent teacher and diplomat, and a dedicated and skilful leader in Developing World‐Japan Collaborative Programs.
Professor Cheng Zhuo‐min (China), for superior achievements in the application of genetic engineering technology for the development of transgenic, disease‐resistant crops and in providing leadership for the plant protection sciences in China.
Professor Yaacov Katan (Israel), for outstanding contributions in the field of soilborne pathogen biology and control, and pioneering research on soil solarization, adopted as a component of IPM programs in more than 60 countries.
Professor Heinz Schmutterer (Germany), for his impressive work in the areas of insect transmission of plant pathogenic viruses, and particularly for the utilization and commercialization of neem products.
Professor Dr. Vittorio Luigi Delucchi (Switzerland), for exceptional contributions through graduate education by directing 52 doctoral candidates, and through research on biological control and Integrated Pest Management systems.
A synchronized international exhibition on technologies and products in plant protection was held on May 11‐15, 2004, also at the Beijing International Convention Center. The opening ceremony of the Exhibition on Plant Protection and Technology for the 15th IPPC was held on May 11. The opening ceremony was presided over by Professor Zhang HI‐li, Secretary General of the Organizing Committee. This exhibition provided Congress participants an opportunity to meet with enterprises and companies related to plant protection to communicate technological information and develop collaborative activities.
It should be noted that Professor Zhou Da-rong made a great contribution to the IPPC in his role in bidding for the IPPC to be held in China. During the four years of preparations for the Congress, although he was ill and suffering and his memory was worsening day by day, he continued to faithfully work until the Congress opening. All involved in this successful Congress have learned the true meaning of sacrifice and have learned from him and will remember him.
16th – XVI IPPC
The XVI International Plant Protection Congress was held In association with the BCPC (formerly known as the British Crop Production Council) International Congress – Crop Science & Technology at the Scottish Exhibition and Conference Center (SECC), Glasgow, Scotland, 15-18 October 2007. President of the IPPC was Dr. Hans Herren, Dr. D. V. Alford was Chair of the Organizing Committee, Prof. E.A. Heinrichs, IAPPS Secretary General represented IAPPS on the Organizing Committee and Prof. P. E. Russell was chair of the Program Committee. An International Advisory committee consisting of 20 persons including all IAPPS Governing Board members was appointed by the IAPPS Secretary General. Congress attendance is estimated to have been 1,100.
With accent on all aspects of crop production worldwide, the scientific program encompassed the latest international developments and scientific research in all areas of crop production, including crop protection, the environment and food production. Concurrent platform sessions (symposia) with presentations from invited experts and submitted oral papers (500) were supported by complementary poster sessions, discussion fora and workshops designed to appeal to those engaged in all areas of crop production, whether from the private sector, academia or research institutes. In addition to the scientific program, the Congress was also the venue for the BCPC Exhibition providing delegates with an opportunity to meet and discuss their needs with organizations covering all aspects of crop production.
Plenary lectures were presented by Christian Verschueren, CropLife International, “The Future is Agriculture and Plant Science can Help;” A. R. Hardy, Central Science Laboratory, Sand Hutton, York, UK, “How Safe is our Food?” and S. M. Browne, Meyrick Estates Winchester, Hants, UK, “Farming at the Sharp End with a Blunt Instrument.” Since 2007 is the centenary of the birth of Rachel Carson, a highlight of the Congress was a debate entitled, “The house believes that Rachel Carson would not today have written Silent Spring.” Dr. Lewis Smith, Syngenta and Professor Peter Gregory of CRI presented their defence of the motion. Answering arguments were presented by Lord Melchett of the UK Soil Association and Dr. Peter Kenmore, FAO, Rome. A detailed summary of the debate has been published in the BCPC Review, www.agrow.com, December 2007.
Plant Protection Awards of Distinction were presented by President Hans Herren. A Posthumous award was presented to Professor Zhen Qi Li (China). Individual Awards were presented to Professor Baruch Rubin (Israel); Professor John Foster (USA); Rd. Mustapha El-Bouhssini (Syria); Dr. Gary Jahn (Cambodia/USA) and Dr. Hari C. Sharma (India).
17th – XVII IPPC
The XVII IPPC-APS joint meeting was held at the Hawaii Convention Center, Honolulu, August 6-10, 2011. Attendance was 1,891 registrants (including about 350 guests). The congress theme was “Implementing Change for Plant Protection.” IAPPS President was Professor Geoff Norton and APS President was Professor John Sherwood. Chair s of the Organizing committee were Professor Carol Ishimaru, APS President elect and Professor E. A.”Short” Heinrichs, IAPPS Secretary General. The nine IAPPS Scientific Program Committees was composed of Chair, Bill Tweedy; Biology of Plant Pathogens, Ray Martyn; Epidemiology/Ecology/Environmental Biology, Ray Martyn; Professionalism/Service/Outreach, Jim Bone; Molecular/cellular/plant microbe interactions, Ray Martyn; IPM, Muni Muniappan; Diseases of plants, Ray Martyn; Entomology, E. A. “Short “ Heinrichs; Weed Science, Baruch Rubin and , Emerging Pests/ invasive Species, John Burd.
The IAPPS Opening ceremony was held on August 6 at which time the International Plant Protection Award of Distinction was presented. Posthumous award to Professor Michael Way (United Kingdom); Team Award to AVRDC- The World Vegetable Center, and Individual Awards to Christian Borgemeister (Kenya), S. K. De Datta (USA), GUO Yu-yuan (China), Karl Hurle (Germany), Noriharu ken Umetsu (Japan), and Robert Zeigler (Philippines).
The Plenary Session on the theme “Implementing Change: Meeting Global Plant Protection Challenges “ consisted of four lectures by prominent scientists: Roger Beachy, “Sustainable Production and Protection of Global Agriculture: Advancing Science and Technology;” Richard Tapia, ”Educating the Nation’s Future Innovators;” Elske van de Fliert, “Communicating IPM Information in Farmers’ Fields of Southeast Asia: Past Lessons and Future Strategies,” and Robert Zeigler, “Trends in Rice Supply and Demand and their Implications for Plant Protection.”
A total of 1,038 posters was presented in the nine scientific subjects mentioned above. Most popular was the IPM/Bio control/Plant Disease Management category with 266 posters. Thirty five special sessions (symposia/invited speaker sessions) with 184 presentations (abstracts) covering all aspects of plant protection were held, on Monday, Tuesday and Wednesday morning. Fifteen technical sessions were held with 161 oral technical papers (abstracts) presented. Six workshops were conducted. The Feed the Future workshop on Saturday evening, August 6, was a full house with about 150 participants. Participating organizations included the Collaborative Research Support Programs CRSPS), U.S. Agency for International Development (USAID), International Agricultural Research Centers (IARCs), U.S. Department of Agriculture (USDA), CropLife International, Bill & Melinda Gates Foundation and Deutche Gesellschaft für Internationale Zusammenarbeit (GIZ). The recommendations made by the body were published in the IAPPS Newsletter, Number XII, December 2011, in the Crop Protection journal. The exhibition in the poster area was well attended with a total of 31 exhibitors including IAPPS. IAPPS shared its booth with Crop Life International who provided financial support to IAPPS for the Congress.
Five pre- congress field trips on plant protection subjects were conducted. Tuesday
p.m. was an open afternoon to participate in organized field trips to sites throughout the Island of Hawaii. An excellent choice of nine different trips was provided and the trips were a highlight for the participant and guests alike.
New technology used at the Congress was the online mobile applications and conference recording of presentations, with author approval.
The final night was a “Luau and Polynesian Spectacular” on the rooftop of the Hawaiian Convention Centre, truly a spectacle with the beautiful sunset over the Honolulu surf. A wonderful ending to a great Congress!
18th – XVIII IPPC
The XVII – IIPPC was held at the Henry Ford Building, Free University Berlin, Berlin, Germany, 24-27 August, with 1,233 registrants from over 95 countries. The Congress theme was “Mission possible: food for all through appropriate plant protection”. The Congress was under the auspices of the International Association for the Plant Protection Sciences (IAPPS) and was hosted by the German Society of Plant Protection and Plant Health (Deutsch Phytomedizinische Gesellschaft, DPG), Julius Kühn Institute (JKI), Agriculture Industry Association (IVA) and managed by the professional congress organizer, Conventus . Holger B. Deising- DPG served as Congress Chair, Falko Feldman, DPG was Congress Managing Director, and Claudia Tonn, Conventus as local organizer. Professor Geoff Norton IAPPS President and Professor E.A. “Short” Heinrichs, IAPPS Secretary General, represented IAPPS on the Steering and Program Committee.
The IAPPS opening ceremony was held on August 24 at which time the International Plant Protection Award of Distinction (IPPAD) was presented. Individual awards were presented to David Bergvinson, India; K. L. Heong, Philippines; Juerg Huber, Germany; Richard Sikora, Germany; Andreas von Tiedemann, Germany and Anthony Youdeowei, Côte d’Ivoire. The team award was presented to the Feed the Future IPM Innovation Lab, VA Tech, USA.
Plenary presentations were made by Per-Pinstrup Anderson, Cornell, University, Ithaca, NY, USA; Patrick Schweitzer, IPK Gatersleben, DE; Myron Zalucki, Brisbane, Australia; and Stephan Krall, GIZ, Germany. Anderson discussed global food production and stated that “appropriate policies along with public and private investments are needed to enhance low-income people’s purchasing power and food production capacity” but was optimistic that “we will achieve food security for all in the foreseeable future”. Schweitzer stated that “gene- and biotechnology-driven approaches for durable pathogen resistance in crops will be one of the most important factors to fulfill our mission: food for all”. Zalucki mentioned that “changing climate will impact on pest abundance and distribution and the effectiveness of biological control in complex ways”. Krall discussed Global Food Security and stated that “Food Security and Nutrition of a growing world population is one of the highest priorities for international development cooperation. In addition to a better distribution of food, eliminating hunger will also require increasing agricultural production in an ecologically, economically and socially sustainable way”.
The Congress consisted oral and poster presentations. The number of abstracts accepted was 1,358 consisting of 360 oral presentations and 998 poster presentations. Presentations covered all plant protection disciplines including weed science, nematology, entomology, plant pathology, plant breeding, economics, sociology and technology transfer.
One of the objectives of the Congress was that the IPPC 2015 would be an ideal platform for discussions and for starting cooperation between young scientists at an international and intercontinental level, leading to an understanding of regional problems confronting plant protection in different areas of the world. This objective was fully met. The DPG junior scientists initiated round table discussions with the plenary speakers at the World Café. The café attracted many young plant protection scientists and student reporters at the World Café posted highlights of the discussions. To facilitate the World Café, participants from all over the world came together and joined at three different tables, each table representing a different topic related to plant protection. After introducing themselves, they exchanged their opinions on the specific topic. After 15 minutes , they moved on to the next table/topic. According to a young scientist “it is very helpful to have a mentor who supports you and introduces you into existing networks”.
The junior scientists also interviewed the plenary speakers. IPPC day 1, the topic was “Challenges” and the junior scientists interviewed Per-Pinstrup Anderson. Day 2 the junior scientists interviewed Patrick Schweitzer and Geoff Norton on the subject of “Tradition and Innovation”. Day 3, Myron Zalucki responded to questions about “Integration and Precision”. On Day 4, GIZ scientists Stephan Krall, Jörg Lohmann and Tanja Thekla Pickardt responded to the question, “how can we as young scientists support the improvement of the quality of life throughout the world via crop protection”? Congress Chair Holger Deising stated, “I was very happy to experience to experience the outstanding activity of the young scientists who participated in the World Café.
Congress Sponsors were: Gold Sponsor (Social Evening), Bayer Crop Science Deutschland GmbH (Langenfeld/DE); Bronze Sponsor (Lounge & Media Check-In), CropLife International (Brussels/BE); and Welcome Reception Sponsor, Monsanto Agrar Deutschland GmbH (Duesseldorf/DE).
In summarizing the 2015 IPPC, Congress Chair Holger Diesing stated, “Hosting the IPPC 2015 in Berlin together with IAPPS, JKI and IVA was an outstanding honor for DPG. The science presented in the keynote lectures, oral presentations and on posters was excellent and represented the top level of plant protection science at the time. I was happy to see the intense discussions during the poster sessions and coffee breaks, highlighting the pleasure of sharing scientific progress with colleagues from around the world. IPPC 2015 was one of the most successful plant protection conferences that I have experienced”.
Details regarding the IPPC 2015 Program, Workshops, Impressions, Student reports, etc. can be found here.
19th – XIX IPPC
XIX International Plant Protection Congress (IPPC2019)
Crop Protection to Outsmart Climate Change for Food Security & Environmental Conservation,
10 – 14 Nov 2019, Hyderabad International Convention Center, Telangana, India
Hari C Sharma, President, IPPC 2019, Hyderabad, Telangana, India
The 19th International Plant Protection Congress (IPPC2019) was organised at the Hyderabad International Convention Center (HICC) during 10-14 Nov 2019 to discuss ways to “Outsmart Climate Change to Protect Crops from Depredations of Insect Pests, Diseases and Weeds”.
The IPPC2019 was organized by the International Crops Research Institute for the Semi-Arid Tropics (ICRISAT), in collaboration with the International Association of Plant Protection Sciences (IAAPS), Crop Protection Societies in India, Indian Council of Agricultural Research (ICAR), and the crop protection industry in India. Over 800 delegates from 60 countries deliberated on strategies for crop protection in the face of climate change to ensure food and nutritional security. Scientists from various areas of crop protection research and extension, including entomology, plant pathology, nematology, and weed science discussed the key issues in crop protection in the backdrop of climate change.
Globally, insect pests, diseases and weeds result in 35 – 40% loss in crop yields, valued at over $250 billion, despite application of pesticides costing over $35 billion annually. In general, pest associated losses vary from 13.8 to 35.8%, which at times reach 100% during the pest outbreaks. Invasive weeds, insect pests, diseases and nematodes are likely to become more serious under global warming and climate change.
The IPPC2019 was inaugurated by Dr Trilochan Mohapatra, Secretary (Department of Agricultural Research and Education) & Director General (Indian Council of Agricultural Research), Government of India. He emphasized that “Insect pests, diseases and weeds are a major constraint in sustainable crop production and food security”. He said that the topic of IPPC2019, “Crop Protection to Outsmart Climate Change for Food Security & Environmental Conservation”, is of utmost importance for planning appropriate strategies for food and nutritional security. The deliberations during the course of this congress will help us to identify the challenges being faced as a result of global warming and climate change, and have a major bearing on pest associated crop losses, food security and the environment.
There is a need for better understanding the effects of climate change on the efficacy of synthetic pesticides, their degradation and persistence in the environment, and develop pesticide formulations and the application equipment that will be least affected by climate change. “The presentations by entomologists, plant pathologists, weed scientists and other scientists will address many of the key plant protection issues that farmers, advisers and governments are dealing with, in particular, those resulting from the increasing complex of agricultural, ecological and other changes associated with global warming,” said Dr Geoff Norton, President-IAPPS, and Dr EA “Short” Heinrichs, Secretary General, IAPPS.
“Pests are invading uninhabitable areas due to climate change factors like increasing temperature and changes in precipitation patterns,” said Dr Peter Carberry, Director General, ICRISAT. “The Congress will provide an opportunity for the crop protection scientists, industry, policy makers, and the farmers to display their technology to the world, and also to learn from the advances made in crop protection in different parts of the world” said Dr HC Sharma, President IPPC2019.
During the inaugural session the IAPPS recognized five scientists for their contributions in crop protection with awards of distinction, scientific achievement, and lifetime achievement awards.
International Plant Protection Award of Distinction
Charles Vincent – Agriculture and Agri-food Canada, Saint-Jean-sur-Richelieu, Quebec, Canada.
Karim Maredia – Michigan State University, East Lansing, Michigan, USA.
International Plant Protection Congress Lifetime Achievement Award
Hari C Sharma – Former Vice Chancellor, Dr YS Parmar University of Horticulture & Forestry, Nauni, Solan, Himachal Pradesh, India, and Principle Scientist – Entomology, ICRISAT.
International Plant Protection Congress Award for Scientific Achievement
Rajan Sharma – Principal Scientist (Cereals pathology), ICRISAT, Patancheru, Hyderabad, India.
Mukesh K Dhillon – Principal Scientist (Entomology), IARI, New Delhi, India.
Nine keynote presentations were delivered during the IPPC2019 by the internationally renowned scientists from different parts of the world, who addressed the burning issues in crop protection, and the recent advances made in frontier areas of crop protection.
- Digital identification and diagnostic tools for biosecurity and plant protection – Geoff Norton
- Pesticidal plants can provide effective and environmentally benign pest management for small holders – Philip C Stevenson
- Trends in pesticide discovery research – development of safer and environ- mentally friendly pesticides – Noriharu Umetsu
- Genomics based breeding for resistance in cereals – a prerequisite for sustainable plant protection and adaptation to climate change – Frank Ordon
- Genetically engineered insect-resistant crops in pest control: Opportunities and challenges – Joerg Romeis
- Understanding and controlling the evolutionary consequences of crop protection strategies – David G. Heckel
- Biological control: Expect the unexpected – Chandish Ballal
Plant medicine doctors, the urgently needed scientists for confronting plant medicine (Phytiatry) and plant health related problems in global agriculture – Eleftherios (Eris) C. Tjamos
- International year of plant health 2020 – protecting plants, protecting life – Shoki Al-Dobai
Concurrent Sessions and Poster Presentations
There were over 400 presentations across 42 concurrent sessions, covering diverse topics such as invasive pests and climate change, fall armyworm invasion in Asia and Africa, herbicide resistance, IPM for sustainable crop protection, pest x host environment interactions, gene mapping and gene cloning, climate change effects on insect pests, diseases, and weeds, pollination management, pest population dynamics, pesticide resistance management, beneficial microbes and their potential in pest management, endophytes, pesticide residues, food safety and mycotoxins, artificial intelligence (AI) based smart plant protection, detection and diagnosis of plant pathogens and phytiatry education and extension.
About 200 posters were presented in seven sessions, and two best posters were selected for recognition by a judging committee in each session.
Appreciation Certificates for Best Poster Presentation
Session 1: Integrated pest management (IPM 1)
Enhanced reproductive and biological potential of Trichogramma chilonis reared on eri silkworm eggs – a productive technology for tribal farmers and unemployed youth
Bachu Lakshmi Manisha, M Visalakshi, D V Sairam Kumar and P Kishore Varma
Toxicity and IGR activity of a brown algal seaweeds’ solvent extracts on a polyphagous pest in Agriculture Spodoptera litura (Fabricius) (Noctuidae: Lepidoptera)
Raja Kannan and Chandrasekaran Gunalan
Session II: Mitigating climate change
Exploring combined stress incited disease dynamics of chickpea x dry root rot interaction
Mamta Sharma, Sharath Chandran US, Avijit Tarafdar, HS Mahesha and Raju Ghosh
Characterization of elicitor – the fungal chitosan to inducing the defence and promoting the growth in Oryza sativa: A sustainable agronomical approach
Vethamonickam Stanley-raja and Sengottayan Senthil-Nathan
Session III: Integrated pest management (IPM 2)
Researches concerning seed treatment effectiveness for controlling of the maize leaf weevil (Tanymecus dilaticollis Gyll) at sunflower crops in south east of the Romania
Georgescu Emil, Cana Lidia, Maria Pacureanu and Mincea Carmen
Management of new invasive pest, Spodoptera frugiperda (J.E. Smith) using green chemistry insecticides based poison baits
K Muralimohan and N T Dileep Kumar
Session IV: Host plant resistance
Screening and identification of novel compounds that induce Jasmonate-regulated defense gene expression
Hirotaka Ishida, Rieko Ogura and Kazuyuki Hiratsuka
Understanding the molecular basis for resistance of chow chow/chayote fruit to Bactrocera cucurbitae compared to cucumber
Meenal Vyas and P D Kamala Jayanthi
Session V: Detection and diagnosis: DNA barcoding
Mitogenome- and SSR-based markers differentiate brown plant hopper (BPH) populations from India
Rashi Anand, Jagadish Sanmallappa Bentur, Tunginba Singh, Sudeshna Mazumdar- Leighton and Suresh Nair
Variation in the virulence of Magnaporthe grisea isolates adapted to finger millet
V Sujay, Rajan Sharma and Santosh Deshpande
Session VI: Food and nutritional security
Nutritional component analysis of edible insects from Nagaland
Neha Trivedi, Patricia Kiewhuo, Lakshmi Kakati and Mukesh Kumar Dhillon
Session VII: ICT in crop protection
Effects of wheat cultivar mixtures on stripe rust disease and yield
Bingyao Chu, Kai Yuan, Keyu Zhang, Lujia Yang, Bingbing Jiang, Yong Luo and Zhanhong Ma
Potential of silicates in deactivating the mycelia of Macrophomina phaseolina (Tassi) Goid, the dry rot pathogen of ginger (Zingiber officinale Rosc.)
Alka Nasser and R Suseela Bhai
During the congress dinner at ICRISAT, the Chair of the LOC, Dr HC Sharma recognized the help and contributions of ICRISAT staff, including Mrs. Carberry W/O Dr Peter Carberry, DG-ICRISAT, Dr KK Sharma-DDG, Dr MK Dhillon-Co-chair, Dr Rajan Sharma-Coordinator, Dr Jagdish Jaba-Member and Mr Suraj Prasad-Member. Dr KK Sharma presented a Memento to Dr HC Sharma on behalf of ICRISAT management to recognize his contributions to ICRISAT. We thank our Gold: ICRISAT, FMC, UPL and Korteva; Bronze: Bayer and Adama: and other sponsors: ICAR and Sumitomo.
Field trips were organized on 14 November to visit research facilities at ICRISAT and Corteva farm.
Recognition of Indian Crop Protection Scientists
The LOC chaired by HC Sharma selected 14 scientists from India to recognize their contributions in different disciplines in Crop Protection in India.
- B.V. David, Dr. B. Vasantharaj David Foundation
- S. Sithanantham, M/S Sun Agro Biotech Research Center
- Raju Shrofff, Chairman, UPL Limited
- Bhagirath Choudhary, Founder Director, South Asia Biotechnology Centre (SABC)
- G.T. Gujar, Former-Head, Division of Entomology, ICAR-IARI, New Delhi
- C.D. Mayee, President, South Asia Biotechnology Centre (SABC) and Former Chairman ASRB
- P.K. Chakrabarty, Member, Agricultural Scientist Recruitment Board
- D.V.R. Reddy, Former-Principal Scientist ICRISAT
- R.P. Thakur, Former-Principal Scientist ICRISAT
- Suresh Pande, Former-Principal Scientist ICRISAT
- B.S. Parmar, Former-Joint Director (Research), IARI, New Delhi.
- Ram Singh, Ex-Director- HRD and Prof & Head Department of Entomology CCS Haryana Agricultural University, Hisar, Haryana
- B.M. Singh, Former Dean COA, HPAU, Palampur
- T. R. Sharma, Director NABI Chandigarh
Feedback by the Participants
The IPPC2019 was organized in an excellent manner and many scientists wrote about the manner in which it was conducted in a highly professional manner. Some of the feedback received from the participants are given below.
“Please accept my sincere appreciation for all of the hard work and sleepless nights in making this IPPC an outstanding success. Of the four IPPCs that I have been involved in, this was by far the most successful. Congratulations to the LOC” – Short Heinrichs, Secretary general IAAPS.
“Congratulations to you and your team for organizing an outstanding Congress. During my nearly 45 years career in Virology I attended numerous meetings, Internationally and Nationally. I rate the IPPC 2019 meeting as one of the best. Very productive and well organized. Many of the participants expressed to me how glad they are for attending the meeting, and wholeheartedly complement you for your untiring efforts” – DVR Reddy, Former Research Division Director – Crop protection, ICRISAT.
“I want to thank you for your professional input in organizing the International Plant Protection Congress in Hyderabad. I really enjoyed it” – Charles Vincent
“IPPC2019 is a dream come true for me. It is like fulfilling pilgrimage for an entomologist. The various sessions, keynote addresses, and important lectures point to the immense possibilities that this science holds for the future and practical utility for the farmers” – GT Gujar – Former head, Division of Entomology, IARI, New Delhi.
Crop Protection to Outsmart Climate Change – The Challenges Ahead
There is a need for a better understanding of the effects of climate change on the efficacy of synthetic pesticides, their degradation and persistence in the environment, and develop pesticide formulations and pesticide application equipment that will be least affected by climate change. We must exploit transgenic crops and marker assisted development of pest-resistant varieties to reduce our over dependence on synthetic pesticides. There is an urgent need to use nanotechnology and ICT to make crop protection more effective, sustainable, end environment friendly. Deployment of transgenic crops have not only reduced the pesticide use drastically, but has also delayed the development of pest resistance to pesticides, which was a major issue threatening crop production worldwide over the past three decades. There is an urgent need for developing and implementing ISI specifications for pesticide formulations and spraying equipment, and strict implementation of pesticide act, and quality control of pesticide formulations to minimize the side effects of pesticide used in crop protection.
The program of IPPC2019 aimed at addressing many of the key issues in crop protection being faced by the farmers, discussed the following issues to meet the challenge of food security and conservation of the environment.
- Climate change – the emerging challenge.
- Biochemical and molecular mechanisms of resistance to biotic stresses.
- Pest detection and
- ICT- in Crop Protection.
- Biosafety of GMOs and IPM technologies to the environment.