Authors and Content

  • A Redford [corresponding author] – Identification Technology Program, Plant Protection and Quarantine Science & Technology, Animal & Plant Health Inspection Service, United States Department of Agriculture
  • GA Norton – Biological Sciences, The University of Queensland, Brisbane, Australia
  • R Wang – Seed Science and Technology Section, Saskatoon Laboratory, Canadian Food Inspection Agency, Saskatoon, Canada
  • JLCH van Valkenburg – Netherlands Institute for Vectors, Invasive Plants and Plant Health, NVWA, Wageningen, The Netherlands
  • XB Zhang – Institute of Digital Agriculture, Zhejiang Academy of Agricultural Sciences, Hangzhou, China 
  • J LaForest – Center for Invasive Species and Ecosystem Health, University of Georgia, Georgia, United States of America 
  • I Naumann – Technical Capacity Building, Plant Systems and Strategies Branch, Plant Biosecurity, 
    Department of Agriculture, Water and the Environment, Canberra, Australia 
  • M Taylor – Identic Pty Ltd, Brisbane, Queensland, Australia 
  • S George – Diagnostic and Surveillance Services (DSS), Biosecurity New Zealand (Tiakitanga Pūtaiao Aotearoa), Ministry for Primary Industries (Manatū Ahu Matua), Auckland, New Zealand
  • JA Cheng – Zhejiang University, Hangzhou, China
  • E Boer – Netherlands Institute for Vectors, Invasive Plants and Plant Health, NVWA, Wageningen, The Netherlands


1. Background to digital identification tools (DITs) for plant biosecurity

2.  A review of existing types of DITs

2.1. DITs that link practitioners directly to experts. 
2.2. Digital fact sheets 
2.3. Using a DIT to enhance dichotomous or pathway keys 
2.4. Matrix keys 
2.5. Image galleries/databases 
2.6. New technologies including artificial intelligence 
2.7. Searching for DITs for biosecurity

 3. Four case studies: the development and use of DITs for biosecurity 

3.1. The USDA Identification Technology Program 
3.2.  Q-bank invasive plants and EPPO-Q-bank: identification tools for biosecurity 
3.3.  International Seed Morphology Association: resource development for weed seed identification
3.4.  International collaboration on thrips key development

4. Issues to be addressed: the future of DITs for biosecurity and plant protection
4.1.  Are specific DITs fit for purpose given a range of users and situations?

4.2.  Integration of DIT’s with alternative diagnostic tools and other support systems
4.3.   Strategies for efficient and sustainable DIT development and deployment
4.4.  The future of digital pest identification